Ref: APG-1999-1/4-F. Alexander Turnbull Library, Wellington, New Zealand. New rolling stock included the Silver Star luxury Wellington–Auckland overnight train, sourced from Japan. Dunedin Railway Station. New Zealand History/Railways. 1982 – Railways Corporation created as statutory corporation from Railways Department. Peter Alsop is a senior executive who has worked across the public and private sectors. [26], Alongside these changes, in 1931 the Railways Department was briefly restructured into the Government Railways Board. A number of experimental railcars and railbuses were developed. Because steam locomotives could not be operated through the new tunnel, the Wairarapa Line was the first to be fully "dieselised". Ring, James, 1856-1939. In its 30 May 1979 issue, the National Business Review said "long-distance rail travel is likely to completely disappear in the early 1980s. The first half of the twentieth century was a ‘golden age' for rail. Hillside built 9 NZR TR class diesel shunters. As a result, non-essential services remained in effect until the end of 1919. Churchman and Hurst's research is meticulous, detailed, and presented extremely well - if you have any interest in railways, you will enjoy reading this vivid insight. Starting from Te Awamutu on 15 April 1885, the section—including the famous Raurimu Spiral—was not completed for another 23 years. In the Liberals last year of office in 1912, 140 miles (230 km) of line had been relaid, but that was reduced to 118 in 1913, 104 in 1914, 81 in 1924 and 68 in 1925, during the Reform Government's years.[23]. 25. It was built to a broad gauge of 5 feet 3 inches (1600 mm), to suit rolling stock imported from Victoria, Australia. During the 1950s New Zealand industry was diversifying, particularly into the timber industry. The Kinleith Branch was shortly followed in 1957 by the 57 kilometres (35 mi) long Murupara Branch, which was opened running through the Bay of Plenty's Kaingaroa Forest. This class followed the building of the Red Terror (an inspection car on a Leyland Cub chassis) for the General Manager in 1933. If you are looking for a detailed work on the history, expansion, and operation of New Zealand's railways, then this is the book for you. After the abolition of provincial governments in 1876, the Central Government took over the building of railways in New Zealand… Until the railway network was developed in the late 19th century, New Zealand’s uncompromising landscape meant overland travel was often extremely difficult. By the 1920s NZR was noticing a considerable downturn in rail passenger traffic on many lines due to increasing ownership of private cars, and from 1923 it began to co-ordinate rail passenger services with private bus services. Gold rushes led to the construction of the Thames Branch, opening in 1898. The war created serious coal shortages as imported coal was no longer available. The Act regulated the carriage of goods and entrenched the monopoly the department had on land transport. 2006 – 2014 – Government funds a series of projects totalling $1.6 billion to modernise and electrify Auckland’s commuter rail system. Discover New Zealand travel destinations and attractions by rail, bus and ferry. The war created major labour shortages across the economy generally, and while considered "essential industry", railways were no exception. First to arrive were ancestors of Māori. [36] The US-built General Electric U26C DX class locomotives were introduced in 1972, with a further batch arriving in 1975. They discovered New Zealand as they explored the Pacific, navigating by ocean currents and the winds and stars.In some traditions, the navigator credited with discovering New Zealand is Kupe. A further improvement to passenger transport came in July that year, with electric services on the Johnsonville Line starting with the introduction of the DM/D English Electric Multiple Units.[29]. [36][37] The Southerner between Christchurch and Invercargill was introduced, replacing the South Island Limited. New Zealand Railways (old and what's left of them too) Despite this, NZR had record revenues in 1940. Various diesel locomotives have been rebuilt at NZR workshops, for example, five of the DA as DC, though most rebuilding has been contracted out. Built by the Canterbury provincial government, this line used tiny British-built tank engines and a broad 5-foot 3-inch (1,600-millimetre) ‘Irish’ gauge track. Tangiwai railway disaster. [17] The second section to be electrified by the department was the Lyttelton Line in Christchurch, completed in 1929, at the same voltage and current. For the first time, the Department employed significant numbers of women to meet the shortages. Ten of the DB class were rebuilt into the DBR class at the same time. The subject is an unlikely one but as you journey through the life and times of a small part of a once-large government department you realise that the raw material: artwork, photographs, trains, people at work, advertising and much more, is pretty well a summary of 20th-century New Zealand. 1990 – Rail is restructured into a limited liability company, New Zealand Rail (NZR). 1873 - First train in North Island, Auckland-Onehunga. Originally, New Zealand's railways were constructed by provincial governments and private firms. Download and print the New Zealand Touring Map to see information on each of the regions in New Zealand and 16 themed highways. As a result, Railways' accounts were in deficit for much of the decade and were topped up with a special "Vote Stabilisation" in the budget. 1986 – Labour government makes railways a state-owned enterprise. From its early beginnings in the mid-19th century, to the present day, rail has connected people and places and helped grow our economy by delivering goods around the country and to and from our ports, connecting exporters with the world. The Taieri Gorge Railway journey starts at the Dunedin Railway Station, one of the nicest old buildings in Dunedin (and New Zealand). All maps are licensed for re-use under Creative Commons Attribution Share-Alike NZ 3.0. Film credit New Zealand archives For those who love building model railways . 1879 - Possible to travel 600km from Christchurch to Invercargill by train. 1878 - First express trains Christchurch-Dunedin cover 370km in 11 hours. It set a minimum distance road transport operators could transport goods at 30 miles (48 km) before they had to be licensed. [35] In 1970, a red, black and white corporate logo designed by Barry Ellis was introduced and a new Passenger Division was established. On Christmas Eve 1953, the worst disaster in NZR's history, and one of the worst in New Zealand's history occurred. The outbreak of World War I in 1914 had a significant impact on the Railways Department. Wagons were rolled onto the ferry and rolled off at the other side. Buy The railways of New Zealand : a journey through history by Geoffrey B. Churchman, Tony Hurst online at Alibris. From the late 1950s branch lines closed, and by the 2000s, there were less than 4,000 kilometres of railway lines. A chronological history of New Zealand rail. 2004 - Government assumes ownership of national rail network and forms ONTRACK to run it. Learn more about how our cultural diversity came about in this young country. In the early 20th century, NZR had begun investigating railcar technology to provide passenger services on regional routes and rural branch lines where carriage trains were not economic and "mixed" trains (passenger carriages attached to freight trains) were undesirably slow. The DX continued to dominate North Island traffic until electrification of the main trunk in the 1980s. In October 1969, the first unit coal trains were introduced, between coal mines at Huntly and New Zealand Steel at Mission Bush. D-J Paper over boards Small owner's stamp FEP Near Fine. [2] Originally, railway construction and operation took place under the auspices of the former provincial governments and some private railways, before all of the provincial operations came under the central Public Works Department. The role of operating the rail network was subsequently separated from that of the network's construction. This led to many benefits for NZR customers. The line stopped about 1.5 miles (2 km) short of Blenheim until it was extended in 1880/1. Photographer Andrew Surgenor Date of Photo July 1991 Map [1] Contributor Andrew Surgenor. New Zealand touring map. Most of New Zealand’s early European settlements were on the coast. Arthurs Pass Railway Station 1967.. The numerically smaller KB class were allocated to the Midland line, where they dominated traffic. KiwiRail’s purpose, to deliver stronger connections for a better New Zealand, drives our teams every day to improve services for our customers through our major infrastructure projects. Our people All maps are licensed for re-use under Creative Commons Attribution Share-Alike NZ 3.0. Buy The Railways of New Zealand : A Journey Through History 2nd (revised) by Churchman, Geoffrey B.; Hurst, Tony (ISBN: 9780908876204) from Amazon's Book Store. The NZR&LS Archives hold a number of working drawings of D class locomotives, which have all been scanned. UPDATE: Services returned for the summer! We are woven into communities across the country through our 3400 people in 50 towns and cities and we have an ambitious vision for New Zealand’s transport future. National Rail Access Agreement (NRAA) with Toll comes into effect with Toll exclusive rail operator and ONTRACK network provider. Coates was an ambitious politician who had an almost "religious zeal" for his portfolio. 1862 - First railway opens - a horse-drawn tramway from Dun Mountain copper mine to Port Nelson. [28] As part of attempts by NZR to win back passengers from private motor vehicles, the same year the first 56-foot carriages were introduced. 2008 – present day - Government funds projects totalling more than $900 million to modernise Wellington’s commuter rail system and allow for longer, faster trains and more services to meet growing commuter demand. In reaction to this, the government attempted to control inflation by fixing prices; in 1972 it was decided that NZR could only charge for its services at no more than 1971 rates, despite rising fuel and labour costs. They were not well suited to New Zealand conditions: they had overly complex valve gear, were too hot for crews manning them and too powerful for the wagons they were hauling. Download a map of i-SITE visitor information centres around the country. The first railway in New Zealand was constructed by the Canterbury Provincial Government in 1863. The topography of New Zealand made the construction of railways a major engineering problem, not least the need for 150 tunnels in the hilly to mountainous terrain of so much of the country. Everyday low prices and free delivery on … Almost everyone travelling between major centres took … In 1881 it took the Thames Valley and Rotorua Railway Company 12 months to find a suitable passage over the Mamaku Ranges. However, due to New Zealand's rugged terrain overseas technology could not simply be directly introduced. Tough economic conditions and increasing competition from road transport led to calls for regulation of the land transport sector. Welcome to the New Zealand Railway and Locomotive Society Now on Facebook Go to Facebook. Ja.1260 4-8-2 : Ashburton, New Zealand: Location: Plains Railway Society: Status: Display: Album: Video: Notes: Churchman and Hurst's research is meticulous, detailed, and presented extremely well - if you have any interest in railways, you will enjoy reading this vivid insight. By 1912, patronage had reached 13.4M passengers per annum (a 242% increase since 1895) and 5.9M tonnes of freight (a 188% increase since 1895).[10]. Discover New Zealand travel destinations and attractions by rail, bus and ferry. Housed in the historic Waitakere Station, the model is filled with intricate details and colourful characters for our youngest visitors to find. Due to coal shortages the K, J, KA, JA classes of steam locomotives were converted from coal to oil burning. Despite large orders for diesel-electric locomotives, NZR was still building steam locomotives until 1956, when JA1274 was completed at Hillside Workshops, Dunedin. The New Zealand Railways Department, NZR or NZGR (New Zealand Government Railways) and often known as the "Railways", was a government department charged with owning and maintaining New Zealand's railway infrastructure and operating the railway system. Apart from four brief experiments with independent boards, NZR remained under direct ministerial control for most of its history.[3]. For 2014 apart from being another Thames heritage Week, is also a jubilee year for Hamilton. NZR's first single-purpose log trains, called "express loggers", began to operate on this branch. 14.000000. KiwiRail is formed as a single integrated above and below rail business. The first settlers probably arrived from Polynesia between 1200 and 1300 AD. The X class was the most powerful locomotive at the time. In 1954, the New Zealand railway network reached its zenith in terms of distance with 5,600 km (3,500 mi), 60% of it on gradients between 1 in 100 and 1 in 200 and 33% steeper than 1 in 100. NZ Rail … 1972 (errata slip) 254p. [21] In 1930 a Royal Commission on Railways recommended that land transport should be "co-ordinated" and the following year Parliament passed the Transport Licensing Act 1931. The introduction of GMV Aramoana in 1962 heralded the start of inter-island ferry services run by NZR. Instead, in August 1881 the Railways Construction and Land Act was passed, allowing joint-stock companies to build and run private railways, as long as they were built to the government's standard rail gauge of 1,067 mm (3 ft 6 in) and connected with the government railway lines. /records/22903033. 1955 – Rimutaka tunnel opens, eclipsing Otira as the longest at 8.8km and Nelson railway closes. 1923 - West Coast line opens - its Otira tunnel, at 8.55km the longest in the British Empire and containing the nation's first electric railway. The railcars were designed to take over provincial inter-city routes but proved to be mechanically unreliable. Date: Apr/May 2013 From: New Zealand railway observer, By: Prebble, Bill, 1955-, INNZNA Description: Features some of Newton Candish's black and white railway images from the mid 1940s to the early 1950s (B306 at the Linwood locomotive sheds, G97 at Ashburton, A472 heading to Greymouth, EC7 derailed at Heathcote, EO2 at the Addington Workshops, and JA1265, AB696, AB718, AB723, and A419 … The Great Journeys of New Zealand. CONCLUSION: The Frankton Junction settlement represents a significant part of New Zealand Railways history. Peter Alsop is a senior executive who has worked across the public and private sectors. Following the success of the Wairarapa railcar class, in 1938 the Standard class railcars were introduced. More classes followed over the years, primarily to operate regional services. New Zealand Railways No. Although hostilities ended in 1918, the coal shortage carried on into 1919 as first miners strikes and then an influenza epidemic cut supplies. Along with opening new lines, NZR began acquiring a number of the private railways which had built railway lines around the country. The tunnel included the first section of railway electrification in New Zealand and its first electric locomotives, the original EO class. The DA, more than any other class, displaced steam locomotives from the North Island. [31] The EW class electric locomotives introduced for the Wellington electric system. [33] The service was very successful, leading to criticism, when the Wellington–Lyttelton overnight ferry was withdrawn, that NZR was competing unfairly with private operators. Toll Rail New Zealand railways; Plains Vintage Railway (Ashburton, Canterbury) The Plains was officially opened to the public in 1973. A new locomotive class, the X class, was introduced in 1909 for traffic on the line. NZR's first diesel-electric locomotives, the English Electric built DE class, were introduced in 1951. A potted history of New Zealand railways: 1862 - first railway opens - a horse-drawn tramway from Dun Mountain copper mine to Port Nelson. New Zealand has a long and colourful railway history, dating from the first public line linking Ferrymead and the new town of Christchurch in 1863. Ironically, the first few years of NZR were marked by the Long Depression, which led to great financial constraint on the department. This included a number of steps to make passenger trains faster, more efficient and cheaper to run. With the new millennium came renewed enthusiasm for rail – globally and here in New Zealand. About this image. Trains also delivered schoolchildren to the classroom, suburban workers to factories and offices, and thousands of day-trippers to beaches, parks, shows and racecourses. [38] NZR introduced its first purpose-built container wagons, the UK class, for the growing traffic that was quickly changing freight patterns. The first railway lines were built in the South Island in the 1860s. 1978 – Completion of the Kaimai tunnel signals more direct freight link between Waikato and Bay of Plenty. Membership is open to all with an interest in the New Zealand Railway system both old and new. Leitch, David B. Leonard Fullerton, David&Charles. As with the first world war, the Second World War had a significant impact on railways. The last timetabled train arrived in Nelson on Friday September 2, 1955 and there was a last-ditch public meeting on the Church Steps. [13] The war soon affected the supply of coal to the railways. A second ferry, MV Aranui, arrived in 1965. Nine of the ED electric locomotives were constructed (assembled) at the Hutt (7) and Addington (2) workshops. New Zealand’s challenging landscapes demanded some remarkable feats of early railway engineers. New Zealand’s first steam-powered public railway was a 7-kilometre line from Christchurch to Ferrymead, which opened in 1863. Once again, growing traffic requirements led to the introduction of a new type of locomotive, the ill-fated G class Garratt locomotives in 1928. Inland travel was difficult because of the mountains, forests and swamps, so most people used sea and river transport, or walked. The locomotives gave good service, but were not powerful or numerous enough to seriously displace steam traction. [16] An acute housing shortage following the war led to the creation of Railways Department's Housing Scheme in 1922. The war itself led to a decline in passenger, freight and train miles run but also led to an increase in profitability. This led to the coining of the phrase "KB country" to describe the area, made famous by the National Film Unit's documentary of the same title. Railways' management had entered the 1970s with a modernisation plan around the theme "Great things are happening to Railways", to counter negative views of the railways' held by the general public and political elites. This definitive history of railways advertising is a time capsule of New Zealand life and examines the art of Railways Studios, detailing its formative place in New Zealand design and art history. Railway Studios is a fine achievement, a book that is almost all things to all people, just as the railways were in … At the same time, a protracted legal battle began with the New Zealand Midland Railway Company, which was only resolved in 1898. [24] The failure of this class lead to the introduction of the K class in 1932. Reefton Railway Station, July 1991.. We are pleased to announce that the Northern Explorer, Coastal Pacific and TranzAlpine trains have returned to the tracks for spring and summer. 1962 – Roll on roll off rail and vehicle ferry, GMV Aramoana begins service between Picton and Wellington  - the start of the Railways Department’s involvement in interisland ferry services. CHOOSE YEAR. [40] A pilot scheme of TMS began in 1973 on the Palmerston North - Gisborne Line between Woodville and Gisborne. 8vo. They were the second class of electric locomotive to be used on this section of electrification. This change took effect from 1977,[39] and greatly increased competition for NZR on key routes between larger centres within 150 km of each other—routes such as Auckland–Hamilton, Hamilton–Tauranga, Wellington–Palmerston North and Christchurch–Ashburton.[39]. 18 Ruth Page called her own women’s protest meeting, on hearing that work would start on pulling up the railway lines at Kiwi on September 20th. [3] During this period the Prime Minister George Forbes was also Minister of Railways, and Minister of Finance was former Minister of Railways Gordon Coates. The Blue Streaks were then allocated to the Wellington—New Plymouth service. Before the Aramoana was introduced, NZR could not compete for inter-island freight business, and the rail networks of both the North and South Islands were not well integrated. Other New Zealand train trips. This was in response to concerns that significant New Zealand rail and general heritage buildings, structures and relics could be lost unless those involved appreciated their value and gave consideration to options for their conservation. First train carried MPs on a junket to Auckland, in August (pictured on left). 2003 - Stock plunges towards 30c/share, Tranz Rail taken over on market by Toll. However, NZR was criticized for not investing enough in new bogie wagons. That year the AA class appeared, and the following year the first AB class locomotives were introduced. The reports only significant change was the proposal of a Cook Strait train ferry service between Wellington and Picton, to link the two systems up. The Act had the effect of authorising the Wellington and Manawatu Railway Company to build the Wellington-Manawatu Line.[7]. The New Zealand Railway system which was already under state control before the First World War reached its ultimate size in the 1950s. 1996 - Wisconsin Central and Fay Richwhite float 31 million shares to the public at $6.19/share. Monday, 11 May 2020. Freight volumes greatly increased during the 1970s, despite the oil shocks of 1973 and 1979, with the greatest setback for freight volumes being Britain's entry into the European Economic Community in 1973. Aramoana with passengers during an early sailing. 518 likes. The programme included: An independent commission, led by Sir Sam Fay and Sir Vincent Raven produced a report known as the "Fay Raven Report"[19] which gave qualified approval to Coates' programme. The Rail Heritage Trust of New Zealand was establshed in 1991. 1886 - Wellington and Manawatu Railway Company opens line to Longburn, near Palmerston North, introducing gas lighting and dining cars. Centralised Traffic Control (CTC) was installed from Taumaranui to Auckland at the same time. While the DG class proved more successful than the DF class, steam remained the dominant form of traction. The branch is the last major branch line to open in New Zealand to date. Concerns about green-house gas emissions and fluctuating petrol prices, changing global freight trends and growing congestion on our roads has led to a revival of rail, and recognition of its natural advantages moving freight, tourists, urban passengers within major cities and regional commuters to work in the city. [25] That year, the department carried 7.2 million passengers per year, down from 14.2 million in 1923. (Auckland Star, 1925-08-27)", "Appendix to the Journals of the House of Representatives, Report of the Government Railways Board", New Zealand Railway and Locomotive Society, "Transforming our economy—Container shipping", "Road transport regulation a controversial measure to protect railways", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=New_Zealand_Railways_Department&oldid=1002622072, Defunct transport organisations based in New Zealand, Former government agencies of New Zealand, Rolling stock manufacturers of New Zealand, New Zealand companies established in 1880, Use New Zealand English from September 2017, All Wikipedia articles written in New Zealand English, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. The Wellington railway station and Tawa flat deviation were both completed in 1937. The Railways Board was abolished by the First Labour Government in 1936.[3]. 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